Khangchendzonga National Park (KNP) named after Mt. Khangchendzonga,the third highest peak in the world was notified in the year 1977 with an area of 850 sq. km. Khanchendzonga is a unique mountain ecosystem falling within three different International boundaries of India,Nepal and China(Tibetan Autonomous Region)housing a large variety of flora and fauna. There is a great variation in elevation ,micro-climate,landscape,habitat and vegetation types together with rich ethno-cultural diversity and the socio-economic attributes of the people living in and around this unique mountain ecosystem. There are numerous glaciers and high altitude lakes within the Khanchendzonga range. A wide variety of woody tree species, shrubs, lichens, epiphytes and mosses have enriched the valley. Indiscriminate poaching in the past have led to a marked decline in the population of the Snow leopard, Red panda, Musk Deer, Blue Sheep and some Pheasants such as Trgopan and Himalayan Monal.
Kyongnosla Alpine Sanctuary is situated around the area adjoining the Tsomgo (Changu) lake along the Nathula Road. Situated at a distance of about 31km east of Gangtok, the capital of Sikkim, this sanctuary covers an area of about 31 sq km. This Sanctuary is rich in both flora and fauna. Rare,endangered ground orchids and rhododendrons interspersed among tall junipers and taller silver firs are among the important plants present. The area is snow covered often upto May. By June-July they are in full bloom. Flowering succession by the many species continues right through to October when Polygonum sp, the last to flower dries up .First snowfall is normally by December-January. Faunal diversity include Goral, Serow, Red Panda ,Himalayan Black Bear, Musk Deer, Common Langur, Leopard ,Tibetan Fox, Yellowthroated Martens and Weasel .Himalayan Marmot has been reintroduced here.
Fambong Lho Wildlife Sanctuary is located about 25 kilometers from Gangtok town. The famous Rumtek Monastery is located at the southeastern boundary. This sanctuary covers an area of about 5,200 hectares above the road between Singtam and Dikchu with the highest point at a place called Tinjure at 2749m. This sanctuary is the home of Himalayan Black Bear, Red Panda, Civet cat and many varieties of butterflies. The Binturong or Bear-Cat is a rare civet reported from here.
Shingba Rhododendron Sanctuary at a distance of about 137 km from Gangtok covering an area of 43 sq kms One can also find silver fir ,spruce ,larch ,juniper, maple and rhododendron shrubs and trees festooned with trailing lichens. The fauna here consists of the Serow, Goral, Red Panda,Himalayan Black Bear,Weasels,Martens and Common Langur. There seem to be two races of Musk Deer: one grey with white specks in the alpine region and one with a dark ashy coat in the fir and rhododendron forest.
Maenam Wildlife Sanctuary is located in South Sikkim above the town of Ravangla which is 26 km by road from Namchi and 65 km from Gangtok via Singtam and covers an area of about 36.34 sq km with its highest point being at Maenam. This sanctuary located at an altitude of about 10,600 ft above sea leavel shelters Red Panda, Goral, Serow, Barking Deer, Marbled-Cat, Leopard-Cat, Civet-Cats, Blood Pheasant, Common Hill Partridge, Magpies, Black Eagle, Blue necked Pitta, Sunbirds and many other animals of the temperate forest
The Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary lies in the south west corner of the West Sikkim district. Spreading over 104 sq. km, across the razor sharp Singalila Range, which forms the natural international border with Nepal. Sanctuary includes Leopard cat,Marbled Cat Himalayan Yellow Throated Marten ,Common Otter, Himalayan Palm Civet ,Cannidae Wild dog, Indian fox, Jackal, Himalayan Langur, Crimson Horned Pheasant, Monal Pheasant, Kaleej Pheasant,Crestless Porcupine,Rufous Tailed Hare,Chinese Pangolin,Flying squirrel,Giant squirrel, Himalayan Mouse Hare. The climate is wet and cold favoring the spread of the dominant genus Rhododendron.
The Panglakha Wildlife Sanctuary is the newly added to the Sikkim’s wealth of National Parks and Sanctuaries. A two days trek from Rongli across a steep gradient leads one here. The roar of the Himalayan black bear is something that will keep you waking . Red panda, gaur, and Tibetan Wolf also are found here . The Sikkim stag was last reported from this Range