Punjab was earlier known as Panchanad in the olden times where it finds a reference in Mahabharatha too.
The Indus Valley Civilization covered a lot of areas in the present day Punjab with the cities of Harappa settled along the river Indus. The Harappan civilization was found along the length of the river Saraswati. Punjab was part of the great ancient empires including the Gandhara, Mahajanapadas, Nandas, Mauryas, Sungas, Kushans, Guptas, Palas, Gurjara-Pratiharas and Hindu Shahis.
The Taxila university is one of the oldest founded by Bharat and it had many scholars as teachers including the politician Chanakya. During the Maurayan empire Taxila was a great centre of learning and discussion, today it is a UN World Heritage site. Today it is located in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
The Aryan invasion lead to the mingling of the Dravidians with the locals giving rise to a new sect.
The furthest eastern extent of Alexander the Great's exploration was along the Indus River. Agriculture flourished and trading cities (such as Jalandhar and Ludhiana) grew in wealth. Alexander founded two cities in the area of Punjab
The location of Punjab made it prone to western and eastern attacks. Invasions from Persians, Greeks, Afgans, Turks and so on resulted in many battles and bloodshed and the birth of valiant heroes who died fighting the invaders. The legacy of Punjab combines the Hindus, Central Asian, Islamic, Afgan and later the British too.
Muhammad Ghazni brought in the Muslim invasion to Punjab followed by Qutbudin Aibak and so on.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh later put an end to the Afgan rule here, he fought many battles against the Afgans and Muslims, and took hold of areas till Afganisthan. He constructed many Gurudwaras and covered the Golden Temple with Gold
Sikhism was born in the 15th century roughly during the Mughal period. The Sikh Empire (1801–1849) was formed on the foundations of the Punjabi Army by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Then came the British and Punjab produced heroes like Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, Sukhdev , Lala Lajpat Rai, Udham Singh etc who fought ferociously in driving them out. Not to forget the thousands of innocent people who shed their lives in the Jallianwala bagh tragedy.
15 th August 1947 India got Independance but the partition came up, Western Punjab was dominated by Muslims and went to Pakistan while Eastern Punjab was dominated by Hindus and Sikhs and remained in India. But this too came at a price when riots broke out and over 500,000 people where killed.
In 1984 an Anti-Sikh riot broke out centered in Golden temple, which led to Operation Bluestar ordered then by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, who razed down the existence of Akal takt.
Is one of the smallest yet prosperous states in India.
Agriculture is the main income and is the largest producer of wheat.
The five main rivers Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum provide Punjab their water all throughout the year.
Punjabi language is the 11th most spoken language in the world.
Punjab has seven major airports. Domestic airports are at Ludhiana, Patiala, Pathankot, Mohali. International airport, Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport in Amritsar.
The Samjhauta Express is a joint venture between Indian Railways and Pakistan Railways and runs from Attari railway station near Amritsar in India to Lahore Railway Station in Punjab, Pakistan.
The Grand Trunk Road also called as NH1 connect Calcutta to Peshawar passing through Jalandhar and Amritsar.
Bhangra is the folk dance and song of Punjab which is very popular.
Planning a visit to Punjab read through travelogues to plan your trip
October marks the beginning of the winter season in Punjab. Winters are chilly, as the temperature dips to 0 degrees(night). The Summers stretch from April till June and is hot and dry with temperatures rising to 45°C. The monsoons are from July to September.